January28, 2023

Abstract Volume: 6 Issue: 5 ISSN:

Clinical – Radiographic Evaluation of MTA Using in Plupotomy of Primary Molars

Ghalia Balish *

Corresponding Author: Ghalia Balish, Specialist Pediatric Dentist at Nor Al Shefa Medical Center

Abudhabi- United Arab Emirates.

Copy Right: © 2022 Ghalia Balish, This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received Date: December 28, 2022

Published Date: January 05, 2023

Clinical – Radiographic Evaluation of MTA Using in Plupotomy of Primary Molars


The aim of this study was to use clinical-radiographical examination to compare the success of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and formocresol (FC) as pulp dressing in pulpotomized primary teeth .

Materials and Methods

A total of fifty-one children were invited to take part in this study one hundred and two primary molars were selected for pulpotomy treatment with either MTA or FC techniques materials were placed on the pulp stumps then Zinc-oxide eugenol paste was applied.

Teeth were finally restored by stainless steel crowns.

Children were observed at baseline 3,6 and 12 months.


The clinical success rate were 98.9% and 89.8% for MTA and FC respectively however, this have not reached significance. In contrast, there was a significant difference (P=0.02) between the two groups.

On radiographic examination 95.9% vs 81.6% for MTA and FC respectively.  


MTA could be the optimal dressing material for pulpotomy of primary teeth rather than FC.


  1. Abedi, H.R; And Ingle, J.I. “Meniral Trioxide Aggregate: A Review of a New Cement”, J. Calif Dent Assoc, 23:36-9, 1995.
  2. Abedi, H.R.; Torabinejad, M.; And Pittford, T.R. “The Use of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Cement MTA As Direct Capping Agent”, J Endod , 22 (4): 199, 1996.
  3. Agamy, H. Bakry N., Avery D., "Comparasion of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Formocresol as pulp Capping Agents in Pulpotomized Primary Teeth" Pediatric Dentistry- 26: 4, 2004.
  4. Ahn, J., Pogrel, M.A, "The effects of 2% Lidoxaine with 1:100.000 Epinephrine on pulpal and gingival blood flow, Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Path. Oral Radio Endod , Vol .85, No.2, 1998.
  5. Aktören, O.; and Gencay, K. “A two year clinical radiographic follow-up of the pulpotomies in primary molars”, J. Dent .Res., 79: Special issue, 543, (abstr. No 3193), 2000.
  6. Alan Milnes, “Formocresol in Primary Teeth” J.Canadian Dent Association , November, Vol. 64, No. 10, 1998: 682.
  7. Alev Alacam, “pulpal Tissue Changes following Pulptomies with Formocresol, Glutaraldehyde-Calcium hydroxide, Glutaraldeyde-zincoxide eugenol pasts in Primary Teeth”, The Journal of  Pedodontics Vol. 13: 108, 1989: 123-132.
  8. Andelin WE, Browning DF, Hsu Roland DD, Torabinejad M, "Microleakage of resected MTA" J Endod 2002, 28: 573-574.
  9. Arens D, Torabinejad M. repair of furcation perforations with mineral Trioxide aggregate . Oral Surg. 1996; 82: 84-88.
  10. Arnold R. Martin. "Anti-infective Agents" Chap 7 In (Silsan and Gisvold's textbook of organic medical and pharmaceutical  chemistry), Lippicott Raven 1998: 175-177.
  11. A vram, DC.; and pulver, F “pulpotomy medicaments for vital primary teeth: Surveys to determine use and attitude in pediatric  dental practice and in dental; schools throughout the world”, J. Dent, Chil., 56: 426-434, 1989.
  12. Bates, C.F.; carnes , D.L. “Longitudinal Sealing Ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate As a Root-end Filling Material”, J, Endod, 22: 575-8, 1996.
  13. Baum, L. Phillips, R.W; and und, M.R. "Liners and cements (Bases and Luting Materials)", in Eds. Baum, L, Phillips, R.W, and Lund, M.R. Text book of operative dentistry, eds, 1985.
  14. Beaver, H.A, Kopel, H.M, Sabes, W.R, “The effect of Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement on Formocresolized Pulp”, J.Dent. Child, Vol. 33, No.6, 1966, P:381.
  15. Berger, J.E, “An Evaluation of the Effects of Formocrisol on the Pulps of Human Primary Molars Following Pulpotomies”, Thesis, Ann Arbor, University of Michjigan School of Dentistry, 1963.
  16. Bimstein E. “pulpotomy Treatment in Primary Teeth” Compendium of continuing  Education Dent Vol. No 8, 1985: 586-591.
  17. Block R. M, et al, “Systemic Distribution of C14-Labeled paraformaldehyde Incorporated within Formocresol following pulpotomed in Dogs” J. Endodontics, vol.4, 1978: 176.
  18. Boeve, C.M, Dermawt, L.R, "Formocresol pulpotomy in primary Molars: A Long Term Radiographic Evaluation", ADJDC, Vol.49, No.4, 1982, P:191.
  19. Barsky R., et al: “Formocresal in primary Teeth” J Canadian Dent  Association , November, vol. 64, No.10, 1998: 682.
  20. Camp, J.H. “Pediatric Endodontic Treatment”, in Eds. Cohen, S. and Burns, R.C. Pathways of the pulp, St. Louis, 1994, The C.V. Mosby. Co.
  21. Cohen, S.; and Burns, R.C. “Pathway of the pulp”. 7th ed., The Mosby Company , St. Louis, Ch. 22: 508-650-725-28,1998.
  22. Cotes O, Baj JR, Vanalda C, Carreras M. "Pulpal Tissue reaction to formocresol VS ferric sulfate in pulpotomized rat teeth. Jelin Pediatr Dent 1997, 21: 247-253.
  23. Cox, C.F., Et al. “Biocompatibity of Surface Sealed Dental Materials Against Exposed Pulps:, J. Prosth. Dent ., 57: 1, Jan., 1987.
  24. Cox, C.F.; et al, “Pulp capping of Dental Pulp Mechanically Exposed To Oral Microflora in The monkey, J. Oral Pathol, 14(2): 156-68, 1995.
  25. Cox, C.F; Bergenholtz, G, Frrzgerald, M, Heys, D.K, Heys, R.J, baker, A. J and Baker, J.A "Capping of the dental pulp mechanically exposed to the oral microflora- a 5 week observation of wound healing in the monkey" Journal of Oral Pthology, 11: 4, 327-339-1985.
  26. Dankert J, et al “Diffusion Formocresol and Glutaraldehyde through Dentin and Cementum”. J. Endodontic, February 1976: 42-46.
  27. Douglas M and Baumgartner J. Perforation repair comparing two types of mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endodon. 2004; 30: 422-424.
  28. Doyle, W.A, McDonald, R.E, Mitchel, D.F, ‘Formocresol Versus Calcium Hydroxide in  Pulpotomy”, J.Dent . Child, Vol.29, 1962, P: 86.
  29. Eidelman E., Holan M.G., Fuks A. "Mineral trioxide aggregate VS. Formocresol in pulpotomized primary molars: a preliminary report, pediatric Dentistry -23:1, 2001.
  30. Estrela, C., et al “Antimicrobial and chemical study of MTA, Portland Cement , Calcium Hydroxide Paste , Sealapex And Dycal”, Braz Dent J, 11(1): 3-9, 2000.
  31. Fadavi, S.; Anderson, A.W. “Acomparison of the pulpal response to freeze-dried bone, calcium hydroxide, and zinc oxide-eugenol in primary teeth in two cynomolgus monkeys”, Pediatric Dentistry, 18: 1, 52-56, 1996.
  32. Fadavi, S.; Anderson , A.W; and Punwani, I.C.” Freeze-dried bone in pulpotomy procedures in Monkey”, The Journal of Pedodontics, 13:2 108-122, 1989.
  33. Faracojunior I.M., Holland R. "Histomorphological response of dog's dental pulp capped with  white mineral trioxide aggregate" Braz Dent J . Vol . 15, No.2, 2004.
  34. Fei, A-L.; Udin R.D.; and Johnson, R. “A clinical study of ferric sulfate as a pulpotomy  agent  in primary teeth”, Pediatric Dentistry, 13:6, 327-332, 1991.
  35. Feigal R.J., Messer H.H., “A critical Look at Glutaraldehyde” Pediatric Dentistry: April-May, vol.12, No.2, 1990: 69-71.
  36. Fernando B. De Argujo et al “A Clinical Evaluation of 2% bufferd Glutaraldehyde in Pulpotomies of human Deciduous Teeth: A 24-month study” Brazil Dent  J. vol 6(1) 1995: 41-44.
  37. Frankl, S.n. “pulp therapy in pedodontics”, Oral Surg., 34:2, 293-309, 1972.
  38. Fuks, A.B.; Bimstein, E.; and Michaeli, Y. “Glutaraldehyde as a pulp dressing after pulpotomy in primary teeth of baboon monkeys”,  Pediatric Dentistry , 8: 1, 32-36, 1986.
  39. Fuks, A.B.; Bimstein ,E.; Guelmann, M.; and klein, H “Assessment of a 2 percent buffered glutaraldehyde solution in pulptomized  primary teeth of school children”. J. Dent . Child., 57: 371-375, September-October , 1990.
  40. Fuks, A.B, Hollan , G; Davis , J.M, Edelman, E; and odont, D. "Ferric Sulfate versus dilute formocresol in pulpotomized primary teeth of baboons" Pediatric Dentistry , 13: 3, 142-150, 1997.
  41. Fuks A.B., Bimstein E., “ Clinical Evaluation of Diluted Formocresol Pulpotomies in primary Teeth of School Children”, Pediatric Dentistry, Vol.3, No.4, 1981: 321.
  42. Fuks A.B., “Pulp Therapy for the Primary Dentition” in Pinkham, Pediatric Dentistry Infancy through Adolescence 3rd Ed Saunders Company1999: 341.
  43. Fuks A B. et al “Pulp Response to Collagen and Glutaraldhyde in Pulpotomized Primary teeth of Baboons” J. Pediatric Dentistry May-June 1991, vol. 13, No.3: 142-150
  44. Garcia-Godoy, F., “A comparison Between Zinc Oxide-Eugenol and Polycarboxylate Cements on Formocresol Pulpotomies”, J.Pedodontics, Vol.6, No.3, 1982, P: 203.
  45. Garcia-Gadoy F., “Radiographic Evaluation of root canal ‘calcification’ following Formocresol Pulpotomy” J. Dentistry for  Children, November-December 1983: 430-431.
  46. Garcia-Godoy F. et al “Pulpal Response to defferent application Times of Formocresol”, J. Pedodontics, (6)2, Winter 1982: 176-193.
  47. Gleason. M.J, Molirari J.A., “Antisepics and Disinidectants” In Yageila J. A. et al, Pharmacology and Therapeutics for Dentistry, 4th Ed, Mosby, 1998: 609.
  48. Johnson B.R, "Considerations in the selection of a root –end filling material. J Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol., Vol 87, No.4. April 1999.
  49. Gruythuysen, R.J, Smits, M.F, “Polycarboxylate Cement as A Cavity-Sealing Material for The Calcium Hydroxide Pulpotomy: A Restospective Study”, ASDC, Vol.62, No.1, 1995, P:22.
  50. Hans, G.S, “Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics”, Arab Denta; Jour, Vol.5, No.2 1993, P:20.
  51. Heiling , J, et al, "Calcium Hydroxide pulpotomy for primary teeth: A clinical study , JADA, Vol. 108, 1984, P:775.
  52. Hill, S.D., et al: “Comparison of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effects of Glutaraldehyde and Formocresol” J. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral  Pathol, vol.71, 1991: 89-95.
  53. Holan G, Fuks AB. Keltz N. "Success rate of pulpotomized primary molars restored with stainless steel crown VS Amalgam. Pediatric  Dentistry 2002, 24: 212-216.
  54. Holan G., Eidelman E., Fuks A., "Long-term evaluation of pulpotomy in primary molars using mineral trioxide aggregate or formocresol" Pediatric Dentistry 27: 2, 2005.
  55. Holland , R.; et al. “Healing Process of Dog Dental Pulp after Pulpotomy And Pulp Covering With Mineral Trixode Aggregate Or Portland  Cement”, Braz Dent J, 12(2): 109-13, 2002.
  56. Holland R, Filho J, Souza V, Avery D, Bemabe P, and Junior E. "Mineral Trioxide Aggregate repair of lateral root perforations". J Endodon 2001; 27: 281-4.
  57. Holland –R Souzav, Nery MJ, "Reaction of rate connective  tissue to implant dentine tube filled with mineral trioxide aggregate or calcium hydroxide", J Endodon, 1999, 925: 161-166.
  58. Judd P.L., Kenny D.J “Formocresol Concerns” J. Canadian Dental Association, 53: 1987: 401-404.
  59. Keiser K, Johnson C, tipton D. "Cytotoxicity of mineral trioxide aggregate using human periodontal ligament fibroblasts". J Endodon  2000; 26: 288-91.
  60. Kenny D.J., Judd P.L., “Time of Recorceder Use of Aldehydes in children’s Dentistry” J. Canadian Dental Association, Vol. 53, 1987: 333.
  61. Kettering, J.D.; And Torabinejad , M. “Investigation of Mutagenicity Of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Other Commonly Used Root-end Filling Materials“, J Endod , 21: 537-42, 1995.
  62. Ketly C.E, Goodman J.R “Formocresol Toxicity: Is There a Suitable alternative for pulpotomy of primary Molar? “ International  Journal of Pediatric Dentistry, 2, 1991: 67-72.
  63. Kilpatrick, N.; Seow, W.K.; Cameron, A.; and widmer, R. “Pulp  therapy for primary and young permanent teeth’, in Eds. Cameron, A; and Widmwe, R. Hand book pf Pediatric Dentistry, London, 1997, Mosby-Wolfe.
  64. Kim Seow, W., et al: “Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte adherence by pulpotomy medicaments : Effects of Formocresol,  Glutaraldyhy, Eugenol , and Calcium hydroxide” J. Peiatric Dentistry March 1986 vol.8, No.1: 16-21.
  65. Koh, E.T.; McDonald, F.;Pitt Ford.; And Torabinejad, M. “Celluolar response To Mineral Trioxide Aggregate”, J.Endod , 24: 543-47, 1998.
  66. Kopel, H.M. “Pediatric Endodontics”, in Eds. Ingle, J.I. and Bakland,  L.K. Endodontics , ed 4, U.S.A., 1994, Williams & Wilkins.
  67. Kopel H. M. et al “The Effect of Glutaraldehyde on Primary Pulp Tissue following Coronal Amputation: an in vivo histologic study”. J. Dentistry for Children, November- December 1980: 425-430.
  68. Landau, M.J.; and Johnson D.C: “pulpal response to ferric sulfate in monkeys”, J.Dent .Res., 67: 215 (abstr, no.822), 1988.
  69. Law, W.F, “An Evaluation of Vital Pulpotomy Technique”, ASDC, Vol. 23, 1956, P:40.
  70. Lee, S.J.; Monef, M.; And Torabinejad, M. “Sealing Ability of a Mineral Trooxide Aggregate For Repair a Lateral Root Perforations”, J. Endod , 19: 541-4, Nov, 1993.
  71. Lewis, T.M. and Law, D.B. “Pulpal treatment of primary teeth”, in Ed. Finn. Clinical pedodontics, ed 4, Philadelphia, 1991, W.B. Saunders Co.
  72. Lewis, B.B, Chestner, S.B, "Formaldehyde  in Dentistry : A review of Mutagenic and  Carcinogenic Potential", JADA, Vol 103, 1981 P: 429.
  73. Liu J. F., et al: “Laser pulpotomy of primary teeth” J.Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 21, No.2, 1999: 128-129.
  74. Loos, P.J, Straffon, L.H, Han, S.S, “Biological Effects of Formocresol”, J.Dent . Child, Vol. 40, No.3, 1973, P: 193.
  75. Magnusson, B.O., Schroder, U.,”Pulp Therapy” In Pedodontic A systemic Approach, by B.O., Magnusson, Copenhagen, Denmark 1981: 233.
  76. Mary Kelley A. et al “Histologic Evaluation of Formocresol and Oxpara Pulpotomies in rhesus Monkeys” JADA, vol. 86, January 1973: 123-127.
  77. Mathewson, R.J. and primosch, R.E. “Pulp treatment”, in Pediatric Dentistry, 3rd ed, chicago, 1995, P:257.
  78. McDonald, R.E. and avery, D.R. “treatment of deep caries , vital pulp exposure, and pulpless teeth”, In Eds. Mc Donald, R.E. and Avery, D.R. Dentistry for the child and adolescent, St.Louis, 1994, The CV Mosby Co.
  79. Mejare I., Larsson A., “Short-term Reaction of Human Dental Pulp to Formocresol and its components- A clinical Experimental study” Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research, 87: 1979: 331-345.
  80. Merko., Speit G., “Significance of Formaldehyde- Induced DNA- Protein Crosslink, for Mutagenessis” Eviniron . mol. Mutagen, vol. 32, No.2, 1998: 260.
  81. Mitchell, P.I.C.; Pitt Ford , T.R.; Torabinejad, And Mc Donald , F. “Osteoblast Biocompatibility of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate”, Biomaterials, 20: 167-173, 1999.
  82. Morawa, A., Straffon, H, Corpron, R., “Clinical Evaluation of Pulpotomies Using Dilute Formocresol”, J. Dent. Child, Vol. 42, No.5, 1975, P: 360.
  83. Myers D. R, et al, “Tissue Changes induced by the Absorption of Formocresol from Pulpotomy sites in Dogs” Pediatric Dentistry, vol.5, No.1, 1983:6.
  84. Myers D. R, et al, “Distribution of C14-formaldehyde after pulpotomy with formocresol” JADA, vol.96, May 1978:  805-812.
  85. Nakashima, M. “Mutagenic and dentin-inductive effects of crude bone morphogenetic protein from bone and dentin in primary adult pulp cell  culture”, Oral Surg. Oral Med, Oral Pathol., 74:4, 484-489, 1992.
  86. Nakata T, Bae K, Baumgartner J. "Perforation repair comparing mineral trioxide aggregate and amalgan using an anaerobic bacterial leakage model". J Endodon 1998: 24: 184-6.
  87. Ohno, H, et al: “A histophathological study on the resorption after pulpotomy for the general paracitioner” J. Odontal. Clin 1987: Jul-Sep, 1(3).
  88. Parkash C., Chardra S, Jaiswal J.N. "Formocresol and Glutaraldehyde pulpotomy in primary teeth" The Journal of Pedodontics Vol.13. P: 314, 1989.
  89. Pashly E.L. et al, “Systemic Distribution of C14-Formaldehyde from Formocresol treated Pulpotomy Sites”, J.Dent, Res., Vol.59, 1980: 603.
  90. Pashly E.L. et al, "The sealing properties of temporary filling materials" J, Prost. Dent, Vol. 60, No.3, 1988, P292.
  91. Pitt Ford , T.S.; Torabenijad, M.; Abed, H.R.; And Bakland.K.”Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate As A Pulp-Capping  Material” , JADA, 127: 1491-93, Oct, 1996.
  92. Pitt Ford , T.S.; Torabenijad, M.; McKendry, D.J.; Hong, C.U.; Kariyawasam, S.P. “Use of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate For repair Of Furcal Perforations” Oral Surg, oral Med, Oral Pathol, 79: 756-93, 1995.
  93. Ramos D.L. et al" The effect of formocresol and glutaraldehyde on rat pulp respiration". J, Dent Child , vol. 47, March- April, 1980: 38-49.
  94. Ranly, D.M. “Pulpotomy therapy in primary teeth: new modalities for old rationals”, Pediatric Dentistry, 16: 6, 403-409, 1994.
  95. Ranly D. M., Horn D. “Distribution , Metabolism , and Excretion of C14-Glutaraldehyde” Journal of Endodontics, Vol. 16, No.3, March 1990: 135-139.
  96. Ranly D.M., Fulton R., “An Autordiographic of The Response of rat Molar Pulp to Formocresol using 3H-thyniding” Pediatric Dentistry vol.5, No.1, 1983.
  97. Ranly, D.M., Lazzari, E.P., “A biochemical study of two bifunctional reagents as alternative to formocresol” J.Dent. Res. 62(10), Oct 1983:1054-1057.
  98. Ranly, D.M., “pulp Therapy in primary Teeth, a review and prospectus” J.Actaodontol. pediat: 3(2), December 1982: 63-68.
  99. Randall R.C "Performed metal crowns for primary and permanenet molars teeth: review in literature pediatric Dentistry 2002, 24: 489-500.
  100. Rule, D.C. “Endodontics in Children”, in Ed. Harty, F.J. Endodontics in Clinical practice, ed3, London, 1990, Wright.
  101. Rusmah M., “Pulpal Reaction to Buffered Glutaraldehyde”. J. Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, vol.16, No.2, 1992: 101-106.
  102. Salako N, Joseph B, Ritwik P, Salonen J, John P, Junaid TA.  "Comparsion of bioactive glass, mineral trioxide aggregate , ferric sulfate , and formocresol as pulpotomy agents in rat molars. Dent Traumatol 2003, 19: 314-320.
  103. Schroder , U. “Agreement between clinical and histologic findings in chronic coronal pulpitis in primary teeth”, Scand. J.Dent. Res. 85:583-587, 1977.
  104. Schroder , U., Granath, L., “Early Reaction of Intact Human Teeth to Calcium Hydroxide Following Experimental Pulpotomy and Significance to The Development of Hard Tissue barrier”, Odont . Revy, Vol.22, 1971, P: 379.
  105. Schwartz, R.S.; Mauger, M.; Clement , D.J.; Walker, W.A.” Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A new Material for Endodontics”, J.A.D.A., 130: 967-75, July , 1999.
  106. Segura J.J. et al, “Effects of Formocresol alone Vs. with Eugenol on Macrophage Adhesion to Plastic surfaces” Pediatric Dentistry , Vol. 20, No.3, 1998: 177.
  107. Seltzer , S. and Bender, L.B. “Pulp capping and pulpotomy”, in Ed. Hanke, G. The Dental pulp, Ed 3, St.Louis. Tokyo, 1990, Ishiyaku Euro America, Inc.
  108. Seux D, Couble ML, Hartmann DJ. Gauthier JP, Magloire H. "Odontoblast-like cytodifferentiation of human dental pulps in vitro in the presence of a calcium hydroxide-containing cement" . Arch Oral Biol 1991; 36: 117-28. 
  109. Shabahang, S.; et al . “Apexification In Immuture Dog Teeth using Osteogenic Protein-1 Minerial Trioxide Aggregate, And Calcium Hydroxide- Abstract-“, J Endod , 23: 265, 1997.
  110. Sir Colin Dollery, “Therapeutic Drugs” Vol 1, 1st Ed Churchill Livingston 1991: G45.
  111. Sluyk S, Moon P,Har Twell G. "Evaluation of setting properties and retention characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate when used as a furcation perdoration repair material" . J Endodon. 1998; 24: 768-771.
  112. Smith NL, Seale NS, Nunn MC. "Ferric Sulfate pulpotomy in primary molars : A retrospective study" . Pediatric Dentistry 200, 22: 192-199.
  113. Straffon. L. H. Hans.S., “The Effect of Formocresol on Hamster Connective Tissue Cells, A Histologic and Quanitive radiographic Study With proline-H3” Arch. Oral. Biologu, vol. 13, 1968: 271.
  114. Sun HW, Feigal RJ. Messer HH. Cytotoxicity of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in relation to time of exposure and concentration . Pediatric Dentistry 990, 12: 303-307.
  115. Swenberg, J.A, et al, "Induction of Squamous cell carcinoma of the rat nasal Cavity by inhalation Exposure to formaldehyde vapours", cancer, Res, Vol. 40, 1980, P: 3398.
  116. Tagger, E. and Tagger, M. “Endodontic Treatment of primary teeth”, in Eds. Ørastavik, D. and pitt Ford, T.R. Essential Endodontology, London, 1998, Blackwell Science Ltd.
  117. Tagger, E. tagger, M., Sarnat, H. “Pulpal Reaction to Glutaraldehyde and Paraformaldhyde Pulpotomy dressings in monky primary Teeth” J. Endod. Dent. Traumatolo, 2: 1986: 237-242.
  118. Tagger, E. Tagger, M., “Pulpal and Opreiapical Reaction to Glutaraldehyde and Paraformaldhyde Pulpotomy dressings in monkeys ” J. Endodontics. Vol. 10, No.8, August 1984: 364-371.
  119. Torabenijad, M.; Watson, T.F.; And PittFord, T.R. “Sealing Ability Of a Mineral Trioxide Aggregate As Root End Filling Material”, J. Endodon., 19: 591-5, 1993.
  120. Torabenijad, M.; et al. “Comparative Investigation Of Marginal Adaptation Of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate And Other Commonly Used Root-end Filling Materials,” J Endod, 21: 295-9, 1995.
  121. Torabenijad, M.; Hong,C.U.;. PittFord, T.R. And kettering , J.D.  “Antibacterial Effects Of Some Root-end Filling materials”,J. Endod., 21: 403-6, 1995.
  122. Torabinejad, M; and Chivian, N. “Clinical Applications Of Mineral Trioxide Agregate” J Endod, 25: 197-204, Mar, 1999.
  123. Torabinejad M, Higa R, McKendry D, Pittford T." Dye leakage of four root-end filling materials: Effects of blood contamination". J Endodon 1994; 20: 159-63.
  124. Torabinejad , Hong C, McDonald F, Pittford T. "Physical and chemical properties of a new root-end filling material". J Endodon. 1995; 21: 349-353.
  125. Torabinejad M, Hong C. "Tissue reaction to implanted super-EBA and mineral Trioxide aggregate in the mandible of  guinea pigs: a preliminary report". J Endodon. 1995, 21: 569-71.
  126. Torabinejad M, Hong C, Lee S, Monsef M, Pittford T. "investigation of mineral trioxide aggregate for root end-filling in dogs". J Endodon. 1995; 21: 603-608.
  127. Torabinejad M, Rastegar A, kettering J, Pittford T. "bacterial leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as a Root –end filling material". J Endodon. 1995, 21: 109-12.
  128. Tsai Tzong-ping, et al: “Glutaraldeyde preparations and pulpotomy in primary molars” J. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 1993: 76: 346-350.
  129. Via, W.F, “Evaluation of Deciduos Molars Treated by Pulpotomy and Calcium Hydroxide”, JADA, Vol. 50, 1955, P: 34.
  130. Waterhouse, P.J. “Formocresol and alternative primary molar pulpotomy medicaments : a review”, Endod. Dent. Traumatol., 11: 157-162, 1995.
  131. Watts A, Paterson RC. "Pulpal response to a Zinc Oxide Eugenol cement" . Jnt Endod J 1987 20: 82-86.
  132. Weldon J, pashley D, Loushine R, Weller R, Kimbrough W. "Sealing ability of mineral Trioxide aggregate and super-EBA when used as furcation repair material: a longitudinal study". J Endodon, 2002; 28: 467-70.
  133. Willard R. M., “Radiographic Changes following Formocresol Pulpotomy in Primary Molars” J. Dentistry for Children, Nov-Dec 1976: 414-415.
  134. Woehrlen, A.E.; and woods, H. “Evaluation of Techniques and materials used in pulpal therapy on a review of the literature: Part I”, JADA, 95: 1154-1158, December , 1977.
  135. Woehrlen, A.E.; and woods, H. “Evaluation of Techniques and materials used in pulpal therapy on a review of the literature: Part II”, JADA, 96: P:107, 1978.
  136. Wolff Gerald K. "Glutaraldehyde : An alternative to formocresol". J General Dentistry, May-June 1994: 260-261.
  137. Wozney, J.M. “The bone morphogenetic protein family: multifunctional cellular regulators in the embryo and adult”, Eur J. Oral Sci., 106(Suppl.1): 160-166, 1998.