March20, 2023

Abstract Volume: 7 Issue: 1 ISSN:

Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Among Public and in Health Care Workers

Sai Charan Pasupuleti *1, Ashish Sunkari 2, Hyndavi Krishna Javaji 3

1,2. Health informatics, Marshall University

3. Health Informatics, Rutgers University

Corresponding Author: Sai Charan Pasupuleti, Health Informatics, Marshall University.

Copy Right: © 2023 Sai Charan Pasupuleti, This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received Date: February 06, 2023

Published Date: February 20, 2023

Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Among Public and in Health Care Workers


Covid-19 was initially discovered in a place city named Wuhan, China. The characteristic of this disease has multiple presentation starting with respiratory distress and fluid accumulation in the lungs (Pneumonia). Global efforts and substantial investment have been made to end the pandemic and its implications. This resulted in the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved several vaccinations with promising results. Despite its potential, many concerns have been raised in public and HCWs regarding vaccination's efficacy, safety, and long-term efficacy.


Individuals who exhibited reluctance (uncertain intention manifested as "maybe" as an opinion) or refusal to take COVID-19 shots (clear intention not to take the vaccine) despite the availability of vaccination services are termed to as vaccine hesitancy. Vaccine hesitancy can be described as a complex phenomenon that varies based on place, time, and type of vaccines. In complete, 17.8% of the participants have been reported vaccine hesitancy.

The psychological factors became deciding factor in the individual attitude towards vaccination. Psychological impact on current pandemic is influenced by an infodemic. pandemic infodemic is all about circulation of misinformation and disinformation about virus, including vaccines that are readily available. The reasons behind their attitude are because of the potential adverse events, efficacy, and general vaccination safety. Two main reasons behind vaccine refusal are long-term adverse effects, which deals with carcinogenic effects, pulmonary and cardiac risks. on the other hand, short-term side effects such as acute allergic reactions. Most of the people believed that there was not enough research have been done in the production of vaccines and few other concerned about the vaccine efficacy against new strains.

Vaccine hesitancy also depends up on the aspects the way vaccine is manufactured in the laboratory. Vaccines are made up of using different technology, for instance most widely used Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is based on messenger RNA. Oxford-AstraZeneca, Sputnik V, and Johnson and Johnson vaccines are based on adenovirus vector technology. Additionally, there are few vaccines made based on inactivate viruses and subunits as well. These approaches brought uncertainty in the process of choosing appropriate vaccine in public and health care workers as well.

Taking about acute side effects to the COVID vaccine, which is also contributed to the vaccine refusal is swelling, redness, fever, headache, fatigue, induration, vomiting, myalgia, chills, pruritus, and cough or itch.

There is also a controversial scenario, where blood cloths became a prominent factor in choosing vaccines. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine has been linked to many pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) incidents, prompting a temporary stop of usage in many countries and age-specific rollout in others. However, the data is currently insufficient and subjective to give conclusive evidence of cause and effect. Similarly, the FDA temporarily stopped the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in April 2021 after several people reported unusual blood-related disorders such as thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome leading to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). A DVT was also recorded shortly after receiving the second dosage of an mRNA-based vaccination. On the other side, some vaccines, such as mRNA COVID-19 vaccines and adenovector vaccines against COVID-19, have been documented to cause anaphylaxis as an acute allergic reaction. Overall, these serious life-threatening adverse effects are uncommon, emphasizing that worldwide immunization programs can continue.

Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) after vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines is now being studied. VITT manifests as thromboembolism symptoms, notably evidence of thrombocytopenia, cerebral blood clots, or abdominal or artery clots, such as easy bruising, bleeding, new and/or severe headaches, and stomach discomfort or a painful, cold numb extremity, especially 4 to 28 days after immunization. This is related to thrombosis (blood clots) in the cerebral venous sinuses, or CVST (large blood vessels in the brain), and other places in the body (such as the large blood vessels of the abdomen and the veins of the legs), as well as thrombocytopenia (low blood platelet levels). These events are uncommon but have been reported with the mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna), as well as the adenoviral vector vaccines ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Astra Zeneca) and Ad26. COV2-S vaccine (Astra Zeneca) (Janssen; Johnson & Johnson).

The World Health Organization is aware that certain people may have a severe adverse reaction to immunizations (e.g., anaphylaxis). According to research by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), anaphylaxis was documented in 11.1 per million cases of vaccinated people in the United States. If the participants have had anaphylactic reactions to previous immunizations, they are not advised to take the new vaccine. Anaphylaxis is most likely caused by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEG derivatives (e.g., polysorbates). It is important that people alert healthcare workers about any previous anaphylaxis they may have had before getting vaccinated. To detect any major adverse effects, it has been suggested that all vaccinated cases stay at the vaccination venue for 30 minutes.

COVID-19 vaccinations were developed in the shortest time possible, in contrast to the average time it takes to develop traditional vaccines. As a result, many doctors were concerned about the vaccine's safety, side effects, and effectiveness. Despite the fact that doctors were aware of the need of vaccination, some professionals wanted to wait a bit to see how successful the vaccines were on others.

Myocarditis/pericarditis has been identified as a rare side effect of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, particularly in young adult and adolescent males. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), myocarditis/pericarditis reporting rates for the second dose of an mRNA vaccine among 12- to 39-year-olds are approximately 12.6 cases per million doses, with higher reporting rates among males aged 12-17 years and those aged 18-24 years (62.8 and 50.5 reported myocarditis cases per million second doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administered, respectively). Patients with myocarditis invariably presented with chest pain, usually 2–3 days after a second dose of mRNA vaccination, and had elevated cardiac troponin levels, with ST segment elevations on the electrocardiogram in most cases, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggestive of myocarditis in all tested patients, according to the most recent comprehensive review, which also collected published case reports.

The v-safe registry's preliminary data showed no safety signals among pregnant women who got COVID-19 mRNA vaccines; out of 3958 participants, 115 (13.9 percent) had a miscarriage. Even while the proportions of adverse pregnancy events were not directly comparable, they were like those seen in studies conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the rate of clinically recognized early pregnancy loss in women aged 20 to 30 years is 9–17 percent in the general population, and it rises significantly with age (up to 80 percent at 45 years of age).


In conclusion, TTS is a very uncommon, serious condition that has a 30% mortality rate and is brought on by the initial administration of COVID-19 vaccinations using viral vectors. TTS is defined by thrombosis at uncommon areas, thrombocytopenia, and positive of the ELISA test for antibodies against polyanions/PF4 complexes and appears between the fourth and the thirty-first day following vaccination. This study documented that lack of trust in COVID-19 among Black Americans with HIV, the majority of whom were sexual minorities, and to show how COVID-19 negatively affects ART adherence. Evidence points to channels for spreading public health information on COVID-19 that people might be more open to, such as through their healthcare providers or community-based, nonpolitical organizations. If public health officials don't work with communities to develop targeted measures, such as efficient techniques, sources, and messaging, to disseminate evidence-based information and dispel suspicion surrounding COVID-19, COVID-19 inequities risk getting worse.

Only interventions that are created by and in conjunction with communities, adhering to community-based participatory research principles, may improve the number of people tested and set the foundation for treatment and vaccination uptake in this period of increased suspicion. Importantly, local community empowerment is required to promote understanding and action to address the core reasons of mistrust in systematic racism, along with both national leadership and antiracist measures.