December07, 2022

Abstract Volume: 2 Issue: 5 ISSN:

Knowledge, Practices and Perceptions Regarding Covid-19 in Patients Reporting to Dental OPD at IIDC

Harris Saeed*, Alia Ahmed1, Ashman Saad2, Arslan Mahmood3, Hajrah Tariq4


1.Alia Ahmed , BDS, FCPS, Head of Department, Islamic International Dental College, G-7/4, Islamabad.

2.Ashman Saad, BDS, House Officer, Islamic International Dental College, G-7/4, Islamabad.

3.Arslan Mahmood, BDS, FCPS, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro.

4.Hajrah Tariq, BDS, FCPS (Trainee Operative Dentistry), Islamic International Dental College, G-7/4, Islamabad.

*Corresponding Author: Harris Saeed, BDS, FCPS (Trainee Operative Dentistry), Islamic International Dental College, G-7/4, Islamabad. Email:

Received Date:  April 12, 2021

Publication Date: May 01, 2021


Introduction: COVID-19 was declared as a pandemic by World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Since then, Several awareness campaigns have been run by health authorities and healthcare professionals to minimize the transmission of the disease. Proper knowledge, attitude and practices and necessary to prevent the transmission of Covid-19. Similar to health care professionals, dental health care professionals and dental patients are also exposed to COVID-19 19 because of the nature of their job.

Objective: The main objective of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of dental patients regarding the transmission of COVID 19 in dentistry.

Methodology: An online-based and paper-based questionnaire was filled from patients with a minimum age of 18 that came to dental OPD at Islamic International Dental College, Islamabad.

Significance: This will help in designing awareness campaigns especially targeting dental-related knowledge of transmission of Covid-19 and precautions against it general population.

Results: A total of 141 patients participated in the study above the age of 18. 69.9 % were non-health care related and 30.9 % were healthcare-related individuals. 92.8 % had the idea that Covid-19 is a contagious disease. The majority of the patients had also the idea as to what precautions needed to be taken during the pandemic. However, when the dental-related questions had a considerable drop in percentage in regards to knowledge. 36% did not know about aerosols. 33.6% answered that COVID-19 was not transferable by aerosols and aerosol-generating procedures in dental treatment. 53.3% said that the dentist wore a hazmat suit for his own protection and 25.5% said that the hazmat suit adorned by a dentist is for the patient’s protection. 40.9 % said that N95 was mandatory for people not related to the health care profession.

Conclusion: The knowledge regarding signs, symptoms and treatment in patients was ample because of the awareness campaigns run in hospitals and media. However, as for dental-related transmission and protection against COVID-19, the knowledge and practices in the population are not appreciable. More needs to be done in regards to the dental awareness regarding COVID-19 19 transmission.

Keywords: COVID-19, Infection Control, Knowledge, Practices, Dental Patients.

Knowledge, Practices and Perceptions Regarding Covid-19 in Patients Reporting to Dental OPD at Islamic International Dental College


Covid-19 has emerged as a respiratory disease that is caused by a novel coronavirus and was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The transmissibility and infectivity of this disease are high, with chief complaints include dry cough, fever, myalgia, fatigue and shortness of breath. Now it has been spread to more than 150 countries of the world. (1) This virus primarily transmits through respiratory droplets produced by coughing or sneezing by an infected person or it can be transmitted by touching contaminated objects or surfaces followed by touching the nose, mouth, or eyes. (2) 

Protection of health care providers and non-healthcare population needs adequate knowledge regarding transmission, source, symptoms and preventive options. Lack of awareness and knowledge as well as misunderstanding and misconceptions among healthcare providers and the population is responsible for late diagnosis, the transmission of infection and inadequate infection control measures. (3) 

This pandemic brought all elective medical health care to a halt, especially the treatments which involve aerosol-generating procedures. The oral health care sector has emerged to be one of the worst-hit, as almost all dental procedures involve aerosol generation. (4) Dental procedures aerosolize saliva and may lead to airborne contamination as the oral cavity harbors bacteria and viruses from the nose, throat, and respiratory tract. (5) Educational campaigns increased COVID-19 awareness but it is unclear to what level this campaign of knowledge can be implemented practically and helped in the reduction of COVID-19 infection. (6)

The present study aims to get an insight into the patient’s viewpoint regarding the knowledge of COVID-19 and its transmission, cross-infection in the dental hospital.

Materials and Methods

Ethical approval was taken from the ethical committee at IIDC, Islamabad. This study was conducted through an online survey form as well as paper and oral survey forms. Participants were described regarding the questionnaire. For those who were unable to participate online, a paper-based questionnaire was given for participation. The questionnaire consisted of two parts, including demographic information and knowledge and perception sections.


A total of 141 people participated through online and paper-based questionnaires. The ratio of females was higher than males, with and 57.4% and 42.6 respectively. People from all groups participated, with the highest participation ratio among 18 – 25 years 41.4%. Participation of non-healthcare individuals was 69.1% as compared to healthcare individuals 30.9%. Level of education found in highest number was Bachelors 52.1%. In the knowledge and perception section, it was observed that 96.5% of people heard about COVID-19. Majority of people 92.8% agreed on the fact that COVID-19 is a contagious disease; while 4.3% did not agree on the statement. The percentage of gender is summarized in Table 1. Knowledge and Perception regarding prevention and transmission in general, and in dentistry were various among people and are summarized in following Table 2.

Table 1: Gender Distribution (n=141)

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Table 2

Figure 2: Percentages of Education Level

Table 3

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(Please find attached pdf to view all tables)


The attitude, knowledge and perception of specific illness caused by infectious agents can be affected by different factors e.g. depth of illness, the severity of transmission and rate of fatality. Attitude, knowledge and perception of COVID-19 are continuously growing day by day since it was announced as Pandemic by WHO (7). Complete outcome and clinical features of COVID-19 are still not completely understood; although cough, fever and dyspnea are among the most commonly associated symptoms (8). Clinical Oral health care workers, particularly the dentist, are exposed to fluid and aerosols, particularly from the oral cavity during a common dental procedure such as dental scaling, restoration, and extraction. (9) Of the respondents, over 96% had knowledge of causes and symptoms regarding the cause and transmission of COVID 19. Over 92% also said that they wear a mask most of the times. However, when they were asked about the relation between dentistry and COVID-19, around 33% said that the virus was not transferable through dental procedures. Regarding hazmat suit, 53% of respondents said that it was for the protection of both the dentist and the patient. 63.1% of individuals replied that they can visit a dentist even if its, not an emergency.

Respondents 83% had also a good idea about the circumstances in which the disease was dangerous i.e weak immune system. As for the treatment, the ratio was divided between antivirals, antibacterials and isolation. 91.4% agreed that dental health education can help educate people about the transmission and prevention of COVID-19 in dentistry.

As per various findings in the study, it will not be incorrect to come up with good efforts in knowledge delivery, attitude measurement and various perspectives among the population. Particular facts of dentistry like aerosols, aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) and how they help in the transmission of the disease can be highlighted in media and dental campaigns. Moreover, patients reporting to dental OPDs must be told about the AGPs and the danger of transmission related to it. By providing correct awareness about the disease in largely populated areas and various communities, it may improve the measures against its prevention.

The back draw of the study was that it was conducted in an urban area where most of the patients were Urban residents. Data related to rural areas are lacking in this regard. 



The study showed that good knowledge, attitude and perception against the disease were high in the majority of the population towards COVID-19. However, knowledge of dental-related transmission of the disease was not sufficient. Campaigns need to be run for awareness. Keeping in mind the rapidly changing situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, it may be argued that the concerns and knowledge might change. For this purpose, the population must be updated on the guidelines against COVID-19 on a regular basis.



No specific funding was obtained for this study.



Ethical approval: The research was approved by the ethics committee at IIDC, Islamabad (Reference no. IIDC/IRC/2021/001/005). All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent: Informed written consent was obtained from all the participants included in the study.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.



1. Zhong B-L, Luo W, Li H-M, Zhang Q-Q, Liu X-G, Li W-T, et al. “Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during  the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey”. Int J Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1745–52.

2. Kumar J, Katto MS, Siddiqui AA, Sahito B, Jamil M, Rasheed N, et al. “Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Healthcare Workers Regarding the Use of Face Mask to Limit the Spread of the New Coronavirus Disease”. 2020;12(4):4–9.

3. Khader Y, Al Nsour M, Al-Batayneh OB, Saadeh R, Bashier H, Alfaqih M, et al. “Dentists’ Awareness, Perception, and Attitude Regarding COVID-19 and Infection  Control: Cross-Sectional Study Among Jordanian Dentists”. JMIR public Heal Surveill. 2020 Apr;6(2):e18798.

4. Bains R, Tikku AP, Bains VK, Verma P. “Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Dental Patients Toward Cross-Infection and Economic Implications in View of Covid-19?: An Online Survey”. 2020;

5. Abichandani S. “Cross contamination in dentistry?: A comprehensive overview”. 2012;2(1):3–9.

6. Jiskani SA, Talpur RA, Singh D, Bhatti FA, Wadood SA, Almani SA. Short Communication. 26.

7. Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O’Neill N, Khan M, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, et al. “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel  coronavirus (COVID-19)”. Int J Surg. 2020 Apr;76:71–6.

8. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. “Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress  syndrome”. Vol. 8, The Lancet. Respiratory medicine. 2020. p. 420–2.

9. Chaudhary FA, Ahmad B, Ahmad P, Muhammad BDS, Khalid D, Qasim D, et al. “Concerns, perceived impact , and preparedness of oral healthcare workers in their working environment during COVID-19 pandemic”. 2020;(July):1–7.

Volume 2 Issue 5 May 2021

©All rights reserved by Harris Saeed

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