The Particle-Wave Dualism? - A Standing Waves' Reception Concept in the Nature for Color Vision, Photosynthesis and Audio Analyze

The Particle-Wave Dualism? - A Standing Waves' Reception Concept in the Nature for Color Vision, Photosynthesis and Audio Analyze

Asatur Hovsepyan, M.D*

*Correspondence to: Asatur Hovsepyan, M.D, Cataract/vitreoretinal surgeon, Mobile Eye Hospital & Regional Eye Clinics of the Armenian Eye Care Project (AECP), Eye Center named after S.V. Malayan, Yerevan, Armenia.

Copyright

© 2023 Asatur Hovsepyan This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original  work is properly cited.

Received: 07 December 2023

Published: 14 December 2023

Abstract

Purpose: To return the Science out of the “impasse” created due to materialistic tendencies in XVIII-XIX centuries explaining any processes of Nature by that they have their own substance (f.e. color detection substances of retina: erythrolab, cyanolab etc.).

Design:  This article design may be classified as an empirical research or Bayesian experimental design to declare the author's hypothesis.

Methods: The author applied a generalization of the literature data on the anatomical structure of light and sound receptors in animals and chloroplasts in plants from the point of view that either the light or the sound have a wave nature, as opposed to the generally accepted "pigment molecules excited by light particle" and "resonance"-theories of perception, respectively.

The use of deductive reasoning makes contemporary theories poor and unable to answer several questions with "Why...?" and requires another explanation:

1.why the Nature created so miracle structures with strongly parallel with each other membranes as photoreceptor disks and thylakoid membranes instead of a simple filling of them with pigments in vacuoles or sacs?

2.why the rod discs are isolated, but the cone disks are open in one side?

3.why the basilar membrane of the internal ear has the width difference is multiplying 2-3 times, but hearable sound frequencies' range is about 1000 times? Moreover, the resonance of such small "strings" must be comparable with very high frequency sounds...

Considering the work of light and sound analyzers of Nature from the point of view of wave theory, especially standing wave physics, gives answers to all these questions and formulates a clearer picture of "how does it all work in Nature?" according to the author's hypothesis.

Conclusion: Nature is unique. and sometimes it's important to zoom-out from taken by electronic microscope pictures for understanding how it works...and all educational books must be revised and be edited respectively.

The author's hypothesis is based on the similarity of the anatomical microstructure of all receptor elements in Nature and declares that the light and the sound must be considered as waves that enter the organism via special structures, refract within the internal media and reflect from special mirrors back with final making of standing waves. These waves clearly distribute their energy at proper distances from the mirror depending on the frequency of the wave, and the organism takes the energy just from their antinodes where the oscillating electric field vector energy of the light (or compression/rarefaction energy of the sound) is maximal. Note that all transmembrane proteins (opsins) are located in a strongly perpendicular plane to the propagating light ray (and for sound - receptor hair-cells for each frequency are located in a line strongly perpendicular to the axis of Scala tympani)


The Particle-Wave Dualism? - A Standing Waves' Reception Concept in the Nature for Color Vision, Photosynthesis and Audio Analyze

Introduction

The color vision, the hearing of music and plants' photosynthesis - What these three different physiological processes are similar with? - in fact the transformation of energy (of each wavelength light or sound) to the certain biological changes in cells lays in their basis, allowing us to distinguish colors and sound tones, and allowing plants to produce oxygen and food for all biosphere of Earth...

In Middle Ages the representatives of idealism and materialism struggled among themselves in an explanation of the specified phenomena… and after the victory of materialistic sights (i.e. assumptions that some substances underlie all phenomena) there was a long stagnation in this sphere making a new “God” in behalf of the “substance”, having created new "God" in the person of "substance", moreover, the existence of the “wave - particle duality” in a question of an explanation of light essence has at all proved an idea that light is perceived by particles of pigment substance of chloroplasts in leaves or retina in eyes...and since then it became an axiom despite of achievements of optics and technics and it was never reconsidered from the point of view of the wave nature of light...

Now it would be useful to “go back” mentally to that time, ask them some questions as if we are contemporaries of Isaac Newton, Thomas Young, Hermann von Helmholtz, Max Plank, Albert Einstein, Benjamin Martin, Georg von Bekesy etc.… By the other words: the use of deductive reasoning makes contemporary theories poor and unable to answer several questions with "Why...?" and requires another explanation.

About 120 years passed from Ewald Hering’s et al. color vision theories...

Now I think it’s reasonable to review our aspect in light & colors reception fundamentals in the Nature... I think it was wrong to go deep into the molecular level to explain visible light interaction with pigment molecule because the wavelength range is very big than pigment molecules’ dimensions!!  - i.e., the range is about 400-700 nm, but pigment molecule (opsin) dimensions are about 10 nm (100 Angstrom).

The all scientists tried to prove any new experiment by the investigation of post-mortem biological structures... Nobody tried to imagine “how it works” in vivo!

 

RESULTS

A. Let's raise these questions in more detail:

1. concerning to the frequency analysis of sound waves in internal ear:

The contemporary theory of detection and analysis of the soundwaves in the cochlea of internal ear is based on the principle of a resonance of proper zones of basilar membrane under the action of sound waves in Scala tympani as if the basilar membrane is a small, curled harpsichord (Benjamin Martin, Georg von Bekesy). This theory would seem completely explains the process of sound perception though there are some doubts how the human ear detects pitch difference between 400 Hz and 401 HZ for example, moreover, nobody ever has proved “the playing on strings of basilar membrane”, however I think there are some contradictions to common sense:

a.the minimal width (i.e., the length of high tone “string”) of the basilar membrane is smaller than the maximal one about 2-3 times, however the maximal hearable tone is 20000 Hz which is more than minimal one (20 Hz) up to 1000 times… (hearable range contains about 12 octaves)

b.the resonance of basilar membrane means that its oscillations can be continued after stopping of incoming sound wave, which must cause an after-sound hearing (by other words: it would be similar to hear a pianist who is playing with pressed left pedal). Why we're not hearing such aftershock noise?

c.why is the high-frequency sensitive part of basilar membrane located further than low-frequency one along a way of sound waves? In fact, it is known, that high-frequency sounds are more strongly absorbed and decayed in the environment than low-frequency ones.

d.where are the range from 200 Hz to 20 Hz on the academic schematic pictures of cochlea (FIG.1) which is an experimental result of sound reception checking after partial destroying of cochlear nerve? I can’t find any data about the sensitivity of basilar membrane to these range sound waves…

 

2. concerning to the photosynthesis of plants (FIG.2):

a) if the main actor of photosynthesis is the green pigment molecule (chlorophyll) in the chloroplasts of the plant. Why chloroplasts have so miracle and complex internal structure, and are not simply enriched with pigment granules?

b) why thylakoid membranes of granum are so similar to discs of our photoreceptor cells and strongly parallel with each other?

c) why the locations of grana are so equidistant and make a “chain” strongly perpendicular to one parabolic-shaped wall or flat opposite wall of the chloroplast?

d) Why in Autumn dying green leaves start to produce new pigments (colored in yellow, red etc...) according to contemporary scientists' opinion?

 

3. concerning to the color detection of eye:

a) Isaac Newton, Thomas Young, Helmholtz and Ewald Herring have declared that there would be three different types of photoreceptor substances (red, green, and blue visual pigments) in the retina for absorption of three main components of white light…. but may I ask them the similar question: “Why had the Nature created such a miraculous structure of strongly perpendicularly oriented membranes in outer segments of photoreceptor cells? Why didn’t the Nature decide to place more quantities of those granules of a pigment in the sac with the same size?”

b) if there are three types of cones contained three color pigments, why don’t we histologically see a mosaic picture of the painted granules between outer limiting membrane and pigment epithelium layer of retina just as we see granules of melanin in melanocytes?

c) Recent results of measurements of human retina light absorption spectrum with using of the Liebman micro spectrophotometer (MSP) show that there are four kinds of spectra with absorbance peaks at the following wavelengths: 558.4 nm (red cones); 530.8 nm (green cones); 496.3 nm (rods) and 419.0 nm (blue cones) [1, 2] – under Einstein's theory [3] the energy of light is absorbed by portions depending on wavelength (or frequency):  E = hν   (in my opinion – this equation simply shows a correlation between energetic capabilities of each wave and its frequency…) – it turns out so, that the energy of absorption of one photon is more in blue cones than in rods, and therefore, must the blue cones be more photosensitive than rods? … (I’m not a physicist, but I feel that my theory will create many doubts about fundamentals of quantum mechanics, which must be revised later…). Moreover about photosensitivity – in some books there is an information that our eye is able to register even one photon [4] …if this is true, the elementary action of vision must be the absorption of the one photon by one molecule of pigment…many of us believe that this is true for rod photoreceptors, but all of us are agree that this is contradictive for cones – why they can’t detect one photon and how many photons must be absorbed by one cone photopigment for making elementary act of vision?

d) One more anatomical feature of outer segments of photoreceptor cells remains unclear – why internal cavities of discs in rods are separated from extracellular space, and the same ones of cones are communicated with extracellular space (FIG.3)?

e) According to wave theory the wave is able to bypass any obstacle if dimensions of last one is smaller than wavelength – the light waves have length in range 400-700 nm and sizes of rhodopsin or iodopsin are about 7-10 nm – and so another question: do light waves not bypass opsin molecules?

f) According to "macular brushes" of entoptic Haidinger phenomenon - there is no clear explanation in scientific reports and articles about why these brushes we see?

 

B. And how to do now?

Now I want to say to contemporary scientists: "Let’s bring back the Science out of the “impasse” created due to hyper-materialistic tendencies in XVII-XIX centuries explaining any processes of Nature by that they have their own substance (f.e. color detection substances of retina: erythrolab, cyanolab, now S-, M- & L-opsins, etc.). Unfortunately, this trend had led to proved discovery via histological prove of post-mortem tissues’ freezing and final slicing... Everybody tried to prove his theory “how it works” by the investigation of post-mortem tissues... Nobody tried to imagine “how it works” in vivo - and this is my first attempt to hypothesize how it works in vivo!

 Let’s to analyze the huge data gathered during last centuries considering the main rules of wave theory". I think the enough data has accumulated for making a new conception that will be able to give answers to the above-stated questions.

I’m an ophthalmologist, an eye surgeon, but I have grown in physics during my childhood thanks to my father (an engineer and inventor) and I was learning my profession from other point of view rather than my colleagues… for example: to my question “why we see colors while looking at the spilled drop of diesel?” (FIG.4), most of them answered quickly and wrongly that we see some pigments inside… of course, the right answer is that the wite light makes multiple internal reflections from gasoline thin film both surfaces and returns to our eye after a rainbow-like dispersion.

C. The essence of the hypothesis.

Here below I hypothesize a unified Nature's principle of the “catching” and either measuring of waves by animals or the effective transformation of wave energy to energy of biochemical synthesis by plants:

 

The light and the sound must be considered as waves which are entering the organism via special structures, each wave refracts within the internal media and reflects from the special mirror back with final making of standing waves - and these waves are clearly distributing their energy in proper distances from that mirror, which depends on the frequency of the wave. The organism takes the energy just from standing waves’ antinodes, where the oscillating electric field vector energy of the light (or compression/rarefaction energy of the sound) is maximal! (FIG.5) Note that this clear picture of the distribution of the nodes-antinodes of standing waves becomes blurred and gradually lost as far as greater distance from the mirror due to energy loss and scattering, therefore the whole wavelength information is available nearby that mirror.

Thanks to this phenomenon animals are able to transform such signals from antinodes to a neuronal action-potential, then by analyzing of "map" of excited receptor cells the final sensation of the frequency characteristic of the received wave-package is made at the brain level.

In more detail for each type of waves:

a) the wave energy of sound is reflected back from round window membrane of cochlea and make standing wave, the first crest of which is located as close to round window as sound frequency is high, this leads to that the basilar membrane is fluctuated maximally at first crest zone and at gradually faded second, third etc. crests zones…the brain takes into account the whole “ensemble” of excited hair-cells and makes final decision about sound pitch;

b) the light is reflected back from mirror (in plants – parabolic shaped internal wall or flat opposite wall of chloroplast; in human eye – pigment epithelium cells apical wall or their basal Bruch's membrane, which is geometrically has shaped more correctly) and make standing wave, the energy of the light is represented in crests as an alternating electric current with ultra-ultrahigh frequency directed in a parallel way to mirror surface, and this current is forcing electrons to move against oxidation-reduction potential through transmembrane proteins (opsins) which are just helping electrons to jump from one side of membrane to other one and to start either a chain of biochemical reactions or a neuronal acting potential…

D. How does the hypothesis explain the questions raised.

D.1. Sound waves:

Let’s review shortly the physics [3, 5] of standing-waves: a traveling sinusoidal wave reaches the perpendicular placed mirror, reflects to back and adds with itself creating a chain of node points of silence and crests of oscillations so that the distances between each neighbor nodes are rigorously equal to the half of wavelength. And two types of mirrors are considered: if the mirror is “hard” – the first crest is far from mirror at the distance equal to λ / 4, and if the mirror is “soft” – λ / 2 (some physicists says that this is the second crest, and first one is located within mirror surface).

Now, for better clearance, I will try to answer to the above-stated questions (using the same numeration) based on new concept:

1. c & d) The anatomy of cochlea (FIG.6 - collected pictures from internet - schematic view of resonating basilar membrane and sound pitches) is a unique and wonderful model for understanding the standing-wave measurement and mustn't be wrongly described as a device with resonating basilar membrane. The soundwave passes from oval window through scala vestibuli and scala tympani reflects from round window membrane (soft mirror) back, and finally forms a chain of pressurized crests and silent node-points. Some physicists can’t imagine this because of that they can’t believe that the speed of sound in cochlear scala is very less than sound speed in water!

In 1992 my father and I invented a soundwave receiver, which contains an analyzer filled by jelly-like media for sound speed diminishing [6]. Has everyone ever seen a fresh fruit-jelly on the dish? And how it reacts on a little shock? The traveling and randomly reflecting mechanical waves are visible! We made some jelly-bar with about 50 cm length and measured the speed of sound – it was about 10-15 m / sec!!! Moreover, by James Lighthill – the ocean waves drop their speed after entering to ducts [7]. Now I would like to say that the main omission of Georg von Bekesy is that he threw out and culled the perilymph without checking its mechanical properties… According to data by Wangemann, Salt [7, 8] the perilymph of scala vestibuli contains more proteins (242 mg/dl) than perilymph of scala tympani (178 mg/dl), and it is up to 5-6 times more than the concentration of proteins in endolymph and cerebrospinal fluid. I know that it will be difficult, but I wish to ask scientists who is investigating cochlea to try to measure the speed of sound in perilymph preferable in vivo because just after death all liquids are changed immediately…

By the way, we can measure it mentally: let's mentally unroll and divide the cochlea (FIG.7) - the length of scala tympani from round window to helicotrema is about 3.2 cm, and the zone of sensitivity to the sound with frequency approximately 200 Hz is beneath the helicotrema – it means that the first crest is far from “soft” round mirror (round window) about 3.2 cm which is equal to half of sound wavelength, finally the speed of sound must be equal to

vST=f*λ=200 Hz*2*0.032 m =12.8 m / sec !

And let’s return to my questions: 3.d) where are the zones of sensitivity to 20 Hz-200Hz range? – let’s continue calculations: if the speed of sound is 12.8 m / sec, the crest of standing soundwave with 150 Hz pitch must be far from round window about

d=λ / 2= vST / 2f=12.8 / (2 *150) =0.0426667 m ≈ 4.3 cm (FIG.7 pink asterisk)! Yes, it is inside of scala vestibuli far from helicotrema about 4.3-3.2=1.1 cm, and you may say that this is coincided with the zone d’=3.2-1.1= 2.1 cm (or f’=12.8 / (0.021 * 2) = 305 Hz (FIG.7 red asterisk)…I think the Nature has given us the solution of this problem if we should looked more attentively at the cross-section of cochlea for both cases: 1) when a pressure crest of standing soundwave 305 Hz is arisen inside of scala tympani at the watched zone – an increasing loudness (amplitude) of the sound stimulates (via bending of whole basilar membrane from the Scala tympani side) the outermost hair cell at first (FIG.7.a) and gradually involves the neighbor cells (FIG.7.b & c) up to inner  hair cell (FIG.7.d); 2) when a pressure crest of standing soundwave 150 Hz is arisen inside of scala vestibuli (FIG.8 pink asterisk) – an increased loudness moves the Reissner’s membrane which touches the tectorial membrane inner part at first (FIG.8.a) and gradually involves neighbor cells in opposite sequence (FIG.8.b, c & d). The attentive reader may reveal that according to above-stated calculations the length of scala vestibuli will be enough just for range 200 Hz - 100 Hz. The more attentive reader can see that the above-calculated sound speed (12.8 m/sec) has index “ST” – i.e., this must be proper to the perilymph of scala tympani. And it becomes clear that the perilymph of scala vestibuli must have speed of sound less than vST. Let’s go back to data by Wangemann, Salt [8, 9] – the perilymph of scala vestibuli contains about 33 % more proteins than the perilymph of scala tympani, and this must be the main cause of more lowering of the speed of sound. Let’s make more calculations based on new sound speed data for scala vestibuli (vSV) and part of standing waves scale from 200 Hz to 20 Hz. It turns out that the mirror for this range must be located closer than round window if the scala tympani would contain same perilymph as in scala vestibuli (FIG.9). The distance between helicotrema and imaginary mirror is D= vSV / 2 * 200 Hz; and the unknown vSV can be revealed proceeding from second equation of 20 Hz standing wave: 0.032 m + D= vSV /2 * 20 Hz    

0.032+ vSV / 2 * 200 Hz = vSV / 2 * 20 Hz  

vSV – 10 vSV = - (0.032*2*200)

vSV = 12.8 / 9 = 1.42 m/sec (the imaginary mirror distance will be D=1.42 / 2*200=0.00355 m=3.55 mm !!!).

It seems so amazing values for the sound speed and must be proved in the nearest future: but I want to warn to scientists upon that it will be true to try measure the speed of sound into the cochlear scala without damaging of its structure: even the drainage of the perilymph may destroy its fine structure. I think such measurement will be possible by using any fine contactless laser-sensors (such as in DVD - players) directed to the membranes of oval and round window, or maybe use a fine endoscope to simply look inside of scala tympani at work... It would be very good if these sensors can be brought from middle-ear side to those windows and can measure the time of passing of a single jolt from oval window to the round one: according to the above-made calculations it must be about t = (0.032 / vSV ) + (0.032 / vST ) = (0.032 / 1.42) + (0.032 / 12.8 ) = 0.025 sec.

 

And let’s return to my questions:

1.b) the term “resonance” means that the mechanical system has its own frequency of free oscillations, and any external force [3], which oscillates with the same frequency, is able to actuate the free oscillations of that system.

The standing-wave principle does not imply any free oscillations of the basilar membrane and let it to stop immediately after the sound is off.

1.a) the width of basilar membrane doesn’t play any role in resonance, and its widening towards the cochlear apex probably just makes him more sensitive to quiet sounds within range 200 - 1000 Hz frequency (the best pitch-sensitivity of human lays in the range 1000-4000 Hz).

In addition, I want to make supposition that the brain collects and analyzes all data about locations of all crests and node-points of each tone of sound.

I think it was wrong but contemporary explanations are proved by physiologists based on just one experimental data of Georg von Békésy – destroying of cochlear apex leads to deafness for about 200 Hz sound wave; further investigations made by help of destruction of spiral ganglion and final mapping for all pitches between 200-20000 Hz (FIG.6). Nobody cares about safe investigation of Scala fluids in vivo...


D.2.1 Light waves:

I think I have completely explained theoretically the acting of mechanical waves on our ear, so let’s pass to electromagnetic waves. Spreading waves don’t make any frequency-related changes within ionized particles of media…but everything is changing nearby mirror – the reflecting wave makes standing waves with strongly differentiated points of media according to the frequency of wave – nodal points of silence and at the distance from them on λ/4 anti-nodal points of maximum energy which induces oscillations of ionized particles parallel to mirror’s surface (FIG.9).

Being not so mechanistic, let’s answer to above stated questions.

 2.a) – a pigment molecule itself has a very small dimensions and waves bend around obstacles with smaller dimensions than their wavelength, so therefore the Nature creates so amazing parallel membrane structures strongly perpendicular to the light propagation ray and comparable with light wavelength range, and pigments in real are working as transmembrane proteins to help electrons to pass through that membrane and to strike biochemical reactions which result to the glucose and finally whole biomasses synthesis.

2.b) – I have collected and analyzed several micro photos of cross section of chloroplasts: taking into account the some damaging of structure of chloroplasts I dare to imagine that the inner membranes (parabolic shaped internal wall or flat opposite wall of chloroplast) play the role of a mirror and the grana are placed on lines strongly perpendicular to its surface as like as “beads” (FIG.10).  Obviously, the chain of grana corresponds to several crests and nodes of the standing light wave. This means that the chloroplast locates its “little power stations” just in places where the electrical field fluctuations are present for proper wavelengths. Why we see plants' color green? Everybody can answer that they pass through them useless green wavelength waves and transform remaining spectrum energy to the biological masses. The standing-wave hypothesis is applicable for this explanation too (Fig.10 - grana-chain zones where the thylakoids absent - are corresponding to antinodes of green light standing wave).    

It seems so amazing, but the Nature prompts us that the wave-theory of light is true!!! Of course, pardon me opposed physicists, but the standing (stationary) light-wave induces an electrical alternating current, which is oriented perpendicularly to the light propagating ray – i.e., the light truly is a transverse wave.

And one more correction: any educational Biology book explains the photosynthesis process by wrong marks of light as a lightning (FIG.11, I circled them with red marker) on the photosystem proteins (transmembrane proteins of the thylakoid). But pardon me, according to the scale of this picture these lightning marks corresponds to the wavelength of X-ray or γ-ray spectrum! The light spectrum wavelengths (more correctly - half of wavelength) dimensions are comparable with the whole width and length of grana, because of the electromotive force (EMF) of induced ultrahigh frequency alternating current is comparable with thylakoid disk (FIG.12).

At 1891 Otto Wiener proved that namely the electrical vector of light-wave makes chemical changes in substance [11], moreover, there is a method for measurement of frequency of UHF radio waves and microwaves by Lecher lines [12] invented in 1888.

And let’s understand some parameters of light based on this new concept:

1. the frequency – is the main constant parameter – how much oscillations are doing per one second.

2. the wavelength – is changed depends on optical refractive index of the media.

3. the intensity – some subjective value in photometry - the luminous or radiant power per unit solid angle.

4. the amplitude (it is not similar to intensity) – does it characterize the power (“force??”)  of light?  but it must have some limitation for this parameter: the electrons current has a maximum speed at the central point of wave-crest and this speed couldn’t exceed the speed of light!!!: i.e. electrons must be in time to stop and to rush back and accelerate up to the same speed in opposite direction, and such process is occurring 4.28275 * 1017 times per second under 700 nm red light action and  7.88927 * 1017 times under 380 nm violet light. So, the period of oscillations (i.e., the time elapsed while electron accelerates to maximum speed and to stop twice (FIG.13 - a little bit mechanistic view from educational book)) is  , for red light T=2.334948 * 10-18 sec; and for violet light T=1.267544 * 10-18 sec. Of course, I beg physicists’ pardon, but let me to analyze a simplified situation: - let’s consider the oscillations of a one electron at the standing-wave first crest central plane taking into account that he follows obediently electrical field force of the light:

the amplitude of oscillations (A) is related to the period (T) as A=  (a* t2)/ 2 = (a* (T/4)2)/ 2 = (a* T2)/ 32  where the “a” is an acceleration, by the way the electron reaches his maximal speed at the central point of the crest in a time equal to quarter of the period too: V max= a*t = a*T/4   or a= 4 *V max/ T  - using this value of acceleration we can deduce the amplitude relation with maximal speed: A= 4 * V Max / T * T2/ 32

The limitation of maximal speed in cytoplasm is vmax = c’= 225407860 m/sec (speed of light in water/cytoplasm) therefore the possible maximal amplitude is equal to: Amax=225407860 m/sec * T / 8.

We can calculate it for above-mentioned 700nm red light:

Amax=2.334948 * 10-18 sec * 225407860 m/sec / 8=6.57894*10-11 m=65.8 nm

and for 380 nm violet light:

Amax=1.267544 * 10-18 sec * 225407860 m/sec / 8=3.5714297*10-11 m=35.7 nm

The height of the crest of standing wave is equal to the doubled amplitude; therefore, finally the standing-wave crest of 700 nm red light in cytoplasm has following dimensions: 132 nm x 263 nm – surprisingly, but it’s so close to the dimensions of grana, and so similar to the human eye photoreceptor's outer segment.

Finally, I see raised-above questions 2 a), b) & c) now answered!... Let's try to answer the last 2 d) question: Why in Autumn dying green leaves start to produce new pigments (colored in yellow, red etc...) according to contemporary scientists' opinion?

After all, it is not very reasonable for the leaves during this period (they are already switching off from the main power supply of the stem turgor) to convert to the production of pigment molecules of a new color and spend precious energy on it... and for what? - for the sake of autumn beauty? And most importantly, the color change is actually a consequence of dehydration and persistent postmortem changes in the plant cell, so that even after leaf fall, this new color does not change until the onset of rotting processes. According to the new hypothesis the alive leaf appears green because of the green wavelength portion of standing waves' antinodes of white light beam lies on gaps between grana of chloroplasts and passes through the leaf without absorption. In the Autumn the water supply is gradually cut-off, and the leaf is going to dehydration and death changes...chloroplasts are going to dehydration and probably wrinkling before death too, and dimensions of the chain containing grana become diminished, so gaps become diminished and shifted to another distance from mirror, therefore the green wavelength start to absorb and other wavelength antinodes become shifted onto gaps and become unabsorbed - as a result, there is an amazing palette of color scales of leaves even on the same tree (FIG.14).

 

D.2.2 Light waves:

Let's switch to the color detection of human eye and answer to raised above questions:

3. a): I think these questions already answered above... please, note again, that the wavelength range is very big than pigment molecules’ dimensions - i.e., the range is about 400-700 nm, but pigment molecule (opsin) dimensions are about 10 nm (100 Angstrom), and waves bend around obstacles with smaller dimensions than their wavelength, so therefore the Nature creates so amazing parallel membrane structures strongly perpendicular to the light propagation ray and comparable with light wavelength range, and pigments in real are working as transmembrane proteins to help electrons to pass through membrane and to strike biochemical reactions which result to membrane depolarization and finally to create the light reception signal in the brain.

3. b): I'm a cataract/vitreoretinal surgeon and honestly the retina looks like whitish-transparent membrane colored only in para-foveolar zone of the macula, where lutein and zeaxanthin pigments are present to play a role in protection of photoreceptors from light damage [13 - again there were postmortem human retinas took for tests despite on freshness 6-12 hours]. Moreover, any my colleague can prove that after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in macular hole surgery almost all displaced ends of photoreceptor-bipolar-ganglionar cells' chains gradually migrate back to their places and regain their function when cones' outer segments re-touch their corresponding RPE (retinal pigment epithelium) cells and when they are again located at a close distance from the mirror (Bruch's membrane): and finally, the patient's visual acquity increased (FIG.15). Strangely enough, histologists do not see any colors when looking at retinal tissue preparations and try to apply one or another method of coloring, although the data described in the literature, even in Wikipedia, on the clear distribution of cones with different color perception in functional terms are proven (FIG. 16) - it is precisely indicated that there are only red ones in the center of the macula and green cones, and blue cones are represented in smaller numbers and begin to be present out from a radius of 1 degree from the center. So, there must be another explanation for why our eyes see the entire palette of colors of the surrounding world with functionally proven three types of cones, but we do not see their color appearance when looking at the histological preparation of the retina...

Let's apply my hypothesis to the photoreceptors' physiology (maybe more correctly - biophysics?):

We can find any appropriate electron-micrograph photo of the retina to prove that neighbor cones' outer segments (OS) are placed in different distances from the Bruch's membrane plane (FIG.17), and moreover, there is a some inequality of their lengths.

Taking into account some damage of tissue in time of tissue-preparation process for electron-micrography (freezing, slicing, etc.) let's imagine schematically the function of retina according to the standing-wave hypothesis (FIG.18):

a) the Bruch's membrane surface is working as a mirror.

b) the first standing-wave crest (antinode) is less informative due to the almost same location and tiny difference in dimensions; therefore, the Nature chooses the second or third antinode for more precise detection.

c) rods' outer segments are very long and cover the whole spectrum of visible light standing-waves' antinodes, so they are working with the rule - "switch on" under the action of the light with "any color" (and moreover, "any intensity");

d) red cones (L-cones) have OS length about λ/2 from 564-700 nm and placed on the λ/2 distance from the Bruch's membrane (i.e. in 282-350 nm far from mirror - the second node location for this wavelength);

e) green cones (M-cones) have OS length nearabout λ/2 from 534 nm and placed on the λ/2 distance from the Bruch's membrane (i.e., in about 267 nm far from mirror - the second node location for this wavelength);

f) blue cones (S-cones) have OS length nearabout λ/2 from 420 nm and placed on the λ distance from the Bruch's membrane (i.e. in about 420 nm far from mirror - the third node location for this wavelength. I think the third antinode detection is more precise than the second one, and majority of available electron micrographs prove that the S-cone is usually placed farer from the Bruch's membrane than L- or M- cones).

Note again, that these electron-micrographs taken from postmortem tissue... And of course in the future it is more acceptable and desirable to modernize the OST image for a fine study of the photoreceptor layer of the retina in vivo.

3. c) & d): To understand how the rod can detect a single photon [4], let's make a quick review of the photoelectrical effect in Physics (FIG.19) - it's very interesting that the green and blue lights knock-out the electron from metallic plate - note, that the direction of "forcedly flying" electrons is perpendicular to the light propagation ray. The last sign proves that there is no a simple "mechanical" hit and knock-out of balls similar to billiards' balls (FIG.20), because the angle of imparted direction of the object ball can never exceed 70 degrees in relation to the direction of movement of the  cue ball, even when using the rotational component of the impact. So, it turns out that during the interaction of a light beam (for a more accurate understanding - we must tell "a polarized light beam" [14]) with a metal, it is the electric field vector (FIG.9) that induces an electromotive force (EMF), under the influence of which electrons "fly out at an angle of 90 degree" from the electron cloud of the metal plate. Shifting these arguments to the principle of rods' physiology, it can be assumed that the membranes of the discs work similarly to the thylakoid membranes of plants (see above), with only one correction - there is another goal here: instead of synthesizing biomass, the photoreceptor cell of the retina should create an action potential and send it along the neural chain to the brain. Therefore again, the membranes are oriented strongly perpendicular to the light propagation vector. The length of rods' outer segment is very long, and such anatomical feature allows to react under the standing light-wave antinode with any wavelength (FIG.18). It can be assumed that portions of extracellular fluid are packed during the formation of isolated disks: this makes it possible to change the resting potential of the membrane of each disk by bringing it closer to the threshold value to such an extent that the movement of one electron under the influence of EMF induced by one photon is enough to start the entire neural system (FIG.21) !

And what about cones' outer segment disks? Why they aren't isolated? It can be assumed that the movement of one electron under the influence of one portion of the EMF induced by light is not enough to start such a system. Probably the cone outer  segment reacts to sum energy of standing wave antinode with fixed frequency (FIG.22) which induce EMFs for several electrons simultaneously.  And finally, questions 3 c) & d) already answered!

The 3 e) question: "...do light waves not bypass opsin molecules? " can be easily answered now: - yes, the light wave bypass the opsin molecules, but after reflecting from the mirror (Bruch's membrane) back, he forms a standing-wave crest in strongly proper places for each color, which induces electromotive forces strongly perpendicular to the light propagation ray, and all located here opsins are working as transmembrane proteins which help to transport electrons from cytoplasm to extracellular fluid (or intra-discal isolated fluid in rods), and as a result the action potential is generated to pass further via bipolar and ganglionic cells to the visual center of the brain!

3 f) question requires more deep explanation and imagination why we see the Haidinger's brushes [15]:

"...The current understanding of human polarization sensitivity is that it is rudimentary and limited to Haidinger's phenomenon (HP) (e.g., Helmholtz, 1924; Stanworth & Naylor, 1955). HP can be perceived by most humans with normal vision when observing a uniform field of linearly polarized white light. It appears as faint orthogonal yellow and blue hour-glass-shaped images (Haidinger's 'brushes") radiating 1-1.5° from the point of fixation (Helmholtz, 1924; Stanworth & Naylor, 1955). Numerous explanations of HP have been proposed (reviewed in Horváth & Varjú, 2004; McGregor et al., 2014; Zhevandrov, 1995), but the radial analyzer hypothesis (Helmholtz, 1924) is most generally accepted. This postulates that the yellow/dark brushes result from selective absorption of linearly polarized light by radially symmetric macular structures. Differences in the azimuth of linear polarization are converted into a luminance change within the anatomical layers of the macula. The luminance change is then detected by the underlying polarization-insensitive photoreceptors.

The spectral characteristics of HP correspond to the absorption of macular pigment with a well-defined peak around 460 nm (Bone, 1980; Naylor & Stanworth, 1954; Vries et al., 1953). It is not seen at wavelengths >520 nm. Evidence for the role of pleo-chroic macular pigment in the generation of HP is strong (Bone & Landrum, 1992; Snodderly, Auran, et al., 1984; Snodderly, Brown, et al., 1984) although the precise mechanism has yet to be determined (McGregor et al., 2014). HP fades rapidly due to temporal retinal adaptation (the Troxler effect) (Helmholtz, 1924). Visibility of HP is therefore enhanced by using a mechanically rotating polarizer and blue light when the yellow brushes appear as dark images (Stokes, 1883) perpendicular to the polarization axis and rotating against a blue background. Other ways of inducing temporal change in the homogenous polarization field include blinking and rotation of the head (eyes)...".

Everything is seeming acceptable but pardon me for disagree with highlighted words in this citation. Especially, why only blue cones are reacted in HP?

Let's imaginate that the low quantity of S-cones prompts us that they are phylogenetically younger than other cones, moreover, the strong radial symmetrical location 1-1.50 circled out of the center of the foveola within the photoreceptors' mosaic map (FIG.16) makes suspect that they are the ones who work with the Haidinger's phenomenon. In other words, there should be anatomical radial symmetry in terms of the location of the side of the outer segment of the blue cone where it is connected to the inner segment and along the way is a cytoplasmic rod connecting all the discs, while the open sides of the discs are made on the opposite edge of the cone (FIG.25 - marked with red spot). Thus, the oscillating EMF-s of the polarized blue standing wave antinode are inducing an alternant electrical current in the same plane, and only S-cones with OS-IS connecting cilia of outer segments placed on that plane will work: in this case, two options are possible: a) connecting cilia are located on the side closer to the center of the foveola, or vice versa - b) connecting cilia are located on the side more distant from the center of the foveola (FIG.26).

 

Discussion

Since this work is exclusively solo-hypothesis and is intended to change the views of the all scientists on the topics covered, there are still discussions to be held...

The main approach that the author advises not to use in the future is to investigate the function of an organ on a living organism, and not in vitro...so therefore, for the proof of this hypothesis anyone may try to build a physical-mechanical copy of sense-organs discussed above thanks to the contemporary nanotechnologies and AI.

?lthough the assumptions described above at the end of the "Results" section regarding the strictly radially symmetrical arrangement of the outer segments of the blue cones can be investigated by histologists with caution.

 

Methods

The author applied a generalization of the literature data on the anatomical structure of light and sound receptors in animals and chloroplasts in plants from the point of view that either the light or the sound has a wave nature, as opposed to the generally accepted "pigment molecules excited by light particle" and "resonance"-theories of perception, respectively.

The use of deductive reasoning makes contemporary theories poor and unable to answer several questions with "Why...?" and requires another explanation. ?s a result, the author puts forward a hypothesis - generalizing all the topics covered and giving answers to questions raised.

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